In the late 19th and early 20th century, Princess Wilhelmina Lobkowicz (1863–1945), daughter of Mořic, 9th Prince Lobkowicz (1831–1903), sponsored and maintained a religious institution at the Castle, The Order of the Sister’s of God’s Love, for unmarried and widowed noblewomen. Wilhemina, who lies buried in the village cemetery, was the last Lobkowicz to live at the Castle.
The Castle was confiscated by the Communist government in 1948. During the late 1970s and 1980s, the Castle was used by the Czech Regional Gallery to exhibit modern socialist art, as well as some of the Lobkowicz family's paintings.
In 1993, the Castle was returned to the Lobkowicz family and a temporary exhibition was immediately opened. From 1997–2007, a permanent exhibition entitled Six Centuries of European Art Patronage featured some of the most significant works from The Lobkowicz Collections.
In 2007, when certain works on display at Nelahozeves Castle were transferred to Prague to become part of the family's new museum at Lobkowicz Palace, Nelahozeves Castle was reinstalled with an exhibition of historical period rooms, Private Spaces: A Noble Family at Home. This exhibition illustrates in wonderful detail the lifestyle of this influential noble family in the mid-19th century.
Situated just below the Castle is the birth house of the great Czech composer, Antonin Dvořák. In this house, which is also owned by the Lobkowicz family, the National Museum operates a small museum, which honors the life of the composer.